This is an Early View Article (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in forthcoming journal issue)
Corporate responsibility and the social behaviour of transnational business towards vulnerable individuals have become a significant part of the global governance agenda, yet an emphasis on self-regulation and the proliferation of different voluntary codes of conduct have produced disappointing results. At the same time there is a lack of systematic effort to engage transnational companies (TNCs) in comprehensive approaches to conflict and securing successful transitions to peace. The article argues for a back-to-basics step of re-examining the complex roles companies play in conflict-affected societies and proposes a human security perspective to address gaps in the current conceptualisation of corporate responsibility and to develop policy which constrains and conscripts corporate power more effectively in fragile environments. The article draws on two case studies of international business in conflict-affected areas to illustrate how a human security approach might indicate new avenues for policy making.